DPC 30, Potable Water on Dairy Farms

Item #: DPC-030

Published: 2006

Pages: 31

This Guideline is written for regulatory officials, sanitarians, cooperative extension personnel, engineers and others who are advising dairy farmers on potable water supplies on dairy farms. This material will assist the reader in evaluating existing water supplies and in the approval of new systems. Specific discussion, including tables and diagrams are provided to: evaluate new water sources, evaluate water quality, interpret laboratory reports, provide water treatment, disinfect wells and water systems, understand backflow prevention and give common sense reasons why violations can create hazards and provide some acceptable options to make needed corrections, and needs for cow preparation and livestock drinking water.

DISCLAIMER: The DPC is not responsible for the use or application of the information provided in this Guideline. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that the information addresses their needs and that any action taken complies with appropriate regulations and standards.

Table of Contents:
INTRODUCTION
WATER SOURCES
     Location and Protection
     Well Construction Practices
     Existing Dug Wells
     Surface Water Sources
WATER QUALITY EVALUATION
     Frequency of Testing
     Proper Sampling
     Various Tests
     Bacteria
     Total Coliform Count
     Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Total Bacteria Count
     Nitrates
     Sulfates and Other Dissolved Salts
     pH 
     Other Water Problems
          Copper
          Hardness
          Hydrogen Sulfide
          Iron
          Manganese
INTERPRETING THE LABORATORY REPORT
TREATMENT OF WATER
     Neutralization
     Water System Disinfection (continuous treatment)
     Chlorination (continuous treatment)
     Disinfection with Ultraviolet Light
     Softening Water
          Types of Water Softeners
          Maintaining Water Softeners
     Removal of Nitrates
     Removal of Sulfates
     Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Removal
     Removal of Iron
          Water softeners for iron removal
     Polyphosphates
     Oxidation followed by filtration
     Oxidizing filter
     Iron bacteria
WELL AND WATER SYSTEM DISINFECTION
     Disinfecting Procedure
BACKFLOW PREVENTION
     Definitions
     Submerged Inlets
     Identifying Submerged Inlets
     Correcting Submerged Inlets
     Sketching the Water Distribution System
     Potential Hazards and Options for Correction
WATER FOR LIVESTOCK
COW PREPARATION WATER
CONCLUSION
Tables & Figures:
Table 1.  Dairy Farm Problems and Water Quality
Table 2. Suggested Minimum Water Supply Isolation Distances, if not superseded by state or local regulations
Figure 1. Shallow Well Construction
Figure 2. Deep Well Construction
Figure 3. Spring Construction
Figure 4. Sanitary Seals for Drilled Wells
Figure 5.  Pitless Adapter Installations
Figure 6. Improving Shallow Well Construction
Figure 7. Surface Water Supply
Table 3.  Water Analysis – Acceptable Limits and Effects of Constituent Concentrations
Table 4. Water Hardness
Figure 8, Ion Exchange System
Table 5. Treatment for Iron
Table 6.  Quantity of Household Laundry Bleach (5.25% chlorine) to Provide a Concentration of 100 ppm or mg/l of Chlorine in 100 Gallons of Clear Water
Figure 9. Location of Single Backflow Prevention Device in Dairy Barn Water Supply
Figure 10. Use of Backflow Prevention Device and Intermediate Water Storage Tank
Figure 11, Plumbing Changes to Allow Installation of One Backflow Prevention Device
Table 7, Water Intake by Dairy Cattle
Table 8. Water Quality Standards for Dairy Cows. (Concentrations in mg/l) (Adams, R. S. 1995. Dairy Reference Manual NRAES -63.)

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DPC 30, Potable Water on Dairy Farms

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